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Relationships between anopheline mosquitoes and topography in West Timor and Java, Indonesia

Ermi Ndoen1*, Clyde Wild12, Pat Dale12, Neil Sipe13 and Mike Dale1

Author Affiliations

1 Griffith School of Environment, Griffith University, Queensland, Australia

2 Environmental Futures Centre, Griffith University, Queensland, Australia

3 Urban Research Program, Griffith University, Queensland, Australia

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Malaria Journal 2010, 9:242  doi:10.1186/1475-2875-9-242

Published: 26 August 2010



Malaria is a serious health issue in Indonesia. Mosquito control is one aspect of an integrated malaria management programme. To focus resources on priority areas, information is needed about the vectors and their habitats. This research aimed to identify the relationship between anopheline mosquitoes and topography in West Timor and Java.


Study areas were selected in three topographic types in West Timor and Java. These were: coastal plain, hilly (rice field) and highland. Adult mosquitoes were captured landing on humans identified to species level and counted.


Eleven species were recorded, four of which were significant for malaria transmission: Anopheles aconitus, Anopheles barbirostris, Anopheles subpictus and Anopheles sundaicus. Each species occupied different topographies, but only five were significantly associated: Anopheles annularis, Anopheles vagus and Anopheles subpictus (Java only) with hilly rice fields; Anopheles barbirostris, Anopheles maculatus and Anopheles subpictus (West Timor only) with coastal areas.


Information on significant malaria vectors associated with specific topography is useful for planning the mosquito control aspect of malaria management.