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Open Access Methodology

Barrier screens: a method to sample blood-fed and host-seeking exophilic mosquitoes

Thomas R Burkot12*, Tanya L Russell1, Lisa J Reimer34, Hugo Bugoro5, Nigel W Beebe67, Robert D Cooper8, Supraman Sukawati9, Frank H Collins10 and Neil F Lobo10

Author Affiliations

1 James Cook University, Queensland Tropical Health Alliance, Cairns, QLD, 4870, Australia

2 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria, Atlanta, GA, 30333, USA

3 Papua New Guinea Institute of Medical Research, Madang, Papua New Guinea

4 Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, 44106, USA

5 National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme, Ministry of Health, Honiara, Solomon Islands

6 School of Biological Sciences, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, QLD, 4068, Australia

7 CSIRO Ecosystem Sciences, Dutton Park, Brisbane, QLD, 4102, Australia

8 Australian Army Malaria Institute, Gallipoli Barracks, Enoggera, QLD, 4051, Australia

9 National Institute of Health, Research and Development, Health Ecology Research and Development Center, Jakarta, Indonesia

10 Eck Institute for Global Health, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN, 46556, USA

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Malaria Journal 2013, 12:49  doi:10.1186/1475-2875-12-49

Published: 5 February 2013

Abstract

Background

Determining the proportion of blood meals on humans by outdoor-feeding and resting mosquitoes is challenging. This is largely due to the difficulty of finding an adequate and unbiased sample of resting, engorged mosquitoes to enable the identification of host blood meal sources. This is particularly difficult in the south-west Pacific countries of Indonesia, the Solomon Islands and Papua New Guinea where thick vegetation constitutes the primary resting sites for the exophilic mosquitoes that are the primary malaria and filariasis vectors.

Methods

Barrier screens of shade-cloth netting attached to bamboo poles were constructed between villages and likely areas where mosquitoes might seek blood meals or rest. Flying mosquitoes, obstructed by the barrier screens, would temporarily stop and could then be captured by aspiration at hourly intervals throughout the night.

Results

In the three countries where this method was evaluated, blood-fed females of Anopheles farauti, Anopheles bancroftii, Anopheles longirostris, Anopheles sundaicus, Anopheles vagus, Anopheles kochi, Anopheles annularis, Anopheles tessellatus, Culex vishnui, Culex quinquefasciatus and Mansonia spp were collected while resting on the barrier screens. In addition, female Anopheles punctulatus and Armigeres spp as well as male An. farauti, Cx. vishnui, Cx. quinquefasciatus and Aedes species were similarly captured.

Conclusions

Building barrier screens as temporary resting sites in areas where mosquitoes were likely to fly was an extremely time-effective method for collecting an unbiased representative sample of engorged mosquitoes for determining the human blood index.

Keywords:
Mosquito sampling; Human blood index; Barrier screen trap; Exophily