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Open Access Highly Accessed Open Badges Case study

Operational scale entomological intervention for malaria control: strategies, achievements and challenges in Zambia

Emmanuel Chanda1*, Victor M Mukonka2, Mulakwa Kamuliwo1, Michael B Macdonald3 and Ubydul Haque4

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Public Health and Research, National Malaria Control Centre, Ministry of Health, P.O. Box 32509, Lusaka, Zambia

2 Department of Public Health. School of Medicine, Copperbelt University, P.O. Box 71191, Ndola, Zambia

3 Global Malaria Programme, WHO Headquarters, World Health Organization, Avenue Appia 20, Geneva, 1211, Switzerland

4 Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, 21205, USA

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Malaria Journal 2013, 12:10  doi:10.1186/1475-2875-12-10

Published: 8 January 2013



While consensus on malaria vector control policy and strategy has stimulated unprecedented political-will, backed by international funding organizations and donors, vector control interventions are expansively being implemented based on assumptions with unequaled successes. This manuscript reports on the strategies, achievements and challenges of the past and contemporary malaria vector control efforts in Zambia.

Case description

All available information and accessible archived documentary records on malaria vector control in Zambia were reviewed. Retrospective analysis of routine surveillance data from the Health Management Information System (HMIS), data from population-based household surveys and various operations research reports was conducted to assess the status in implementing policies and strategies.

Discussion and evaluation

Empirical evidence is critical for informing policy decisions and tailoring interventions to local settings. Thus, the World Health Organization (WHO) encourages the adoption of the integrated vector management (IVM) strategy which is a rational decision making process for optimal use of available resources. One of the key features of IVM is capacity building at the operational level to plan, implement, monitor and evaluate vector control and its epidemiological and entomological impact. In Zambia, great progress has been made in implementing WHO-recommended vector control policies and strategies within the context of the IVM Global Strategic framework with strong adherence to its five key attributes.


The country has solid, consistent and coordinated policies, strategies and guidelines for malaria vector control. The Zambian experience demonstrates the significance of a coordinated multi-pronged IVM approach effectively operationalized within the context of a national health system.

Malaria vector control; Integrated vector management; Policy and strategy; Community involvement; Private sector engagement; Monitoring and evaluation