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Assessment of the effect of insecticide-treated nets and indoor residual spraying for malaria control in three rural kebeles of Adami Tulu District, South Central Ethiopia

Damtew Bekele1, Yeshambel Belyhun2*, Beyene Petros3 and Wakgari Deressa4

Author Affiliations

1 Natural and Computational Sciences, Biology Department, Debre Markos University, Debre Markos, Ethiopia

2 School of Biomedical and Laboratory Sciences, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, P.O. Box 196, Ethiopia

3 Life Science faculty, Microbial Cellular and Molecular Biology unit, Biomedical Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

4 School of Public Health, Epidemiology and Biostatics unit, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

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Malaria Journal 2012, 11:127  doi:10.1186/1475-2875-11-127

Published: 25 April 2012

Abstract

Background

In the Adami Tulu District, indoor residual spraying (IRS) and insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) has been the main tool used to control malaria. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of IRS and ITNs control strategies in Aneno Shisho kebele (lowest administrative unit of Ethiopia) compared with Kamo Gerbi (supplied ITN only) and Jela Aluto (no IRS and ITNs), with regards to the prevalence of malaria and mosquito density.

Methods

Cross-sectional surveys were conducted after heavy rains (October/November, 2006) and during the sporadic rains (April, 2007) in the three kebeles of Adami Tulu District. Malaria infection was measured by means of thick and thin film. Monthly collection of adult mosquitoes from October-December 2006 and April-May 2007 and sporozoite enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) on the collected mosquitoes were detected. Data related to the knowledge of mode of malaria transmission and its control measures were collected. Data collected on parasitological and knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) surveys were managed and analysed using a statistical computer program SPSS version 13.0. A P-value <0.05 was considered to be statistically significant.

Results

The overall prevalence of malaria was 8.6% in Jela Aluto, 4.4% in Kamo Gerbi and 1.3% in Aneno Shisho in the two season surveys. The vector, Anopheles gambiae s.l., Anopheles pharoensis and Anopheles coustani were recorded. However, sporozoite ELISA on mosquito collections detected no infection. The difference in overall malaria prevalence and mosquito density between the three kebeles was significant (P<0.05).

Conclusions

The present study has provided some evidence for the success of ITNs/IRS combined malaria control measures in Aneno Shisho kebele in Adami Tulu District. Therefore, the combined ITNs/IRS malaria control measures must be expanded to cover all kebeles in the District of Ethiopia.